There aren’t many Roman remains visible in London today, with most destroyed over the centuries by evolution of building and war. In the early centuries of the 1st Millennium AD, the area we know today as the City of London was home to a population of 60,000 people. Although provincial by today’s city standards, Londinium was a bustling centre of trade and industry and included a Basilica, Forum, Amphitheatre, Temples, Bath houses and a Fort.
Roman London had a tricky start and was razed to the ground by Boudica, queen of the Celtic Iceni tribe in AD 60/61, when it had only been established around 20 years prior. The invading Romans were undeterred and rebuilt, creating a stone fort just outside the main town in the north east around 110AD. Built in what we know as the Barbican area today, the Cripplegate fort was home to the city garrison with an estimated 1000 soldiers.
Between 190 and 225AD, the north and west walls of the Fort were incorporated into the new London Wall, part of an extensive programme of public works. The new wall, made of mostly Kentish ragstone, enclosed the city from Tower Hill to Blackfriars and was over 3 kilometres long and surrounded by a defensive ditch. If you wanted to enter Londinium, you had to do so via one of the main gates: Bishopsgate, Aldgate, Newgate and Ludgate. Meanwhile, the Fort had two gates on the north and west, with remains of the latter still visible.
Today, what’s left of the West Gate is protected in a locked room in a car park in the City. I recently had the chance to visit the ruins on a tour by the Museum Of London. The remains were discovered in 1956 during extensive excavation and rebuilding after the City was seriously damaged during the Blitz. You can see the foundations and lower parts of the Fort Wall, North Turret and Guard Room and the Central Pier of the Double Gateway. Parts of the South Turret were excavated at the time, but were not preserved. There is also a scale model of how the gate would have looked in its heyday.
- The Museum Of London run occasional tours of the Western Gate ruins. Keep an eye on the MOL’s events page for dates and booking.
For more of Metro Girl’s history posts, click here.
Did you know there’s some 2nd century ruins hidden underneath a City of London office block?
This weekend sees the return of Open House London – an annual event which has been growing rapidly every year. I went to my first Open House in 2012 and managed to see three very different buildings in one day. It involved a lot of queuing, but it was worth it to get the chance to see inside some historical and unique London buildings which are normally off limits to the public.
One such ‘building’ I saw last year was Billingsgate Roman House and Baths, which will again be open on Sunday this year. The ruins are located in the basement of an office block in Lower Thames Street in the City of London, so are rarely open to the public. Due to health and safety reasons and space in the basement, only small groups are allowed at a time to see the ruins so be prepared to queue. I waited about 90 minutes to get inside, but it was thoroughly worth the wait and I would do it again. As you may know, there’s not much left of Roman London in the capital. Above ground there are parts of the old city wall of Londinium in Barbican, Tower Hill and Cooper’s Row. Meanwhile, there’s probably a lot of Roman London deep below ground, but only a small amount we know about or are able to access. This is why Open House London is so special, because it gives us the chance to visit one of the city’s few accessible Roman ruins.
The remains at Lower Thames Street were first discovered in 1848 by workmen constructing the Coal Exchange. Archaeologists have dated the house from the late 2nd century AD, with the bath house within its courtyard from the 3rd century. It is believed the building was still in use up until the early 5th century AD when Roman Londinium was in decline. When the house was built, it would have been by the waterside of the Thames. The adjoining bath house includes a cold room, warm room and hot room – which can be seen today when you visit the ruins. On your visit, you will be given a tour by volunteers from UCL’s Institute of Archaeology, supported by the Museum of London, City of London and English Heritage.
- Billingsgate Roman House and Baths is usually open for Open House London in September each year or the Museum Of London run occasional tours. 101 Lower Thames Street, City of London, EC3R 6DL. Nearest station: Monument. For more information visit Open House London website or the official blog for the Billingsgate Roman Bath House or check out the Museum Of London’s event page.
For other blog posts on Open House London, read:
- ‘Roman’ bath at The Strand: What the ‘Dickens’ is the history behind this old watering hole?
- Inside out: A rare chance to step inside the Lloyd’s Building at Open House
- Open House London 2015: Royal residences, Roman baths and more.
- Open House London 2013: Highlights gallery from Royal Courts of Justice, Foreign Office & City Hall
- Middle Temple Hall: Legal life, Twelfth Night and a rare survivor of Elizabethan architecture
- Knights, Shakespeare and lawyers: Visit the Medieval Temple Church at Open House London.
- Derelict beauty: A visit to Caroline Gardens Chapel with Open House London
- Regency London, John Nash and the Third Reich: Visiting The Royal Society’s Carlton House Terrace with Open House.
- Neo-classicism, masques and an execution site: The history and beauty of Banqueting House.
For more of Metro Girl’s blog posts on London history, click here.